The leading contender was the St Petersburg State Transport University, whose employees installed a horizontal hydraulic tensile testing machine in 1877 as part of a laboratory expansion program. The machine had been built a year earlier by MAN in Nuremburg to the design of Ludwig Werder.
This testing machine (Fmax 100 kN) has only been modernized once during its 136-year career. This was at the beginning of the 20th century, when an electric motor was added to simplify the setting-up of tests. The first components tested were chains for suspension bridges, followed over the next 130-plus years by several thousand tests on chains, ropes and fasteners.
Fig.: Horizontal hydraulic tensile testing machine at St Petersburg University