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In the tensile test a specimen is strained until it breaks. The applied strain rate must be low, so that the result is not distorted. During the tensile test the force and extension of the specimen are measured.
Next to hardness measurement, tensile tests are one of the most frequently performed tests in mechanical materials testing. They are used to characterize the strength and deformation behavior under tensile load.
Depending on the material, the tensile test is used as the standard method in accordance with the respective standard for determination of yield strength, tensile strength, strain at break and other material properties.
Tensile tests are performed
During a tensile test the material behavior is examined
The characteristic values determined with the tensile test
In general a distinction is made between tensile tests with static, quasi-static, cyclic and impact loading.
Normally, a load is considered to be static when the material is subjected to an inactive constant load. In a classic tensile test the load is steadily increasing and applied smoothly (quasi-static). The upper limit for quasi-static test methods lies at a deformation speed of approximately 10-1s-1, therefore the maximum increase (e.g. of the strain) cannot be more than 0.1 % per second.