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Tensile Test

The tensile test is a test method within mechanical materials testing, for determination of material characteristics. Depending on the material, the test is used as the standard method in accordance with the respective standard for determination of yield strength, tensile strength, strain at break and other material properties.

In the tensile test a material specimen is strained until it breaks. The applied strain rate must be low, so that the result is not distorted. During the tensile test the force and extension of the specimen are measured.

Next to hardness measurement, tensile tests are one of the most frequently performed tests in mechanical materials testing. They are used to characterize the strength and deformation behavior under tensile load.

Uses Differentiation by load Differentiation by material Testing machines Other tests

Tensile test characteristic values

Tensile strength
Maximum mechanical tensile stress
to Tensile strength
Yield point
The end of the elastic behavior
to Yield point

Tensile Test – Purpose and Meaning

Tensile tests are performed

  • On machined thin specimens for determination of the material behavior under uniaxial tensile load uniformly distributed over the cross section
  • On notched specimens for the simulation of multi-axial stress states—notch tensile test
  • On products such as wires, yarns, films, ropes, shaped elements, components and component assemblies—which from here on out will be referred to as cycle.

During a tensile test the material behavior is examined

  • Under continually increasing (smooth) load – classic quasi-static tensile test
  • Under constant static load – creep tensile test
  • Under alternating load for determination of the cyclic stress­strain curve –LCF (Low Cycle Fatigue)
  • At room temperature (10 to 35 °C)
  • At elevated temperatures (to far over 1000 °C)
  • At low temperatures (down to -269 °C)
  • At very low test speeds – creep tests, or also
  • At elevated test speeds – high-speed tensile tests

The characteristic values determined with the tensile test are

  • The foundation for the calculation and dimensioning of statically loaded components and structures
  • Needed for the characterization of the processing behavior of the materials
  • Used during quality control for the determination of production uniformity
  • Used during material selection for comparison between materials and material conditions

Differentiation of Tensile Test According to Temporal Progression of the Load

In general a distinction is made between tensile tests with static, quasi-static, cyclic and impact loading.

Normally, a load is considered to be static when the material is subjected to an inactive constant load. In a classic tensile test the load is steadily increasing and applied smoothly (quasi-static). The upper limit for quasi-static test methods lies at a deformation speed of approximately 10-1s-1, therefore the maximum increase (e.g. of the strain) cannot be more than 0.1 % per second.

Differentiation of Tensile Test According to Material to be Tested

The tensile test is a standard-based method for materials testing, which depending on material / industry puts different requirements on the performance. 

Our industry experts know these requirements and are happy to help with the configuration of the testing systems for your individual testing needs.

In the following list you will find examples of various descriptions of tensile tests in a wide range of industries

Tensile test on metals
ISO 6892-1
to Tensile test on metals
Tensile test on metals at elevated temperature
ISO 6892-2
to Tensile test on metals at elevated temperature
Tensile Tests on Plastics
ISO 527-1, ISO 527-2
to Tensile Tests on Plastics
Tensile properties of films and sheets
ISO 527-3, ASTM D882, ASTM D5323
to Tensile properties of films and sheets
Tensile properties/tear strength of cellular foams and plastics
ISO 1798, ASTM D3574-E, ISO 8067, ASTM D3574-F
to Tensile properties/tear strength of cellular foams and plastics
Tensile test on plastic pipes
ISO 6259, ISO 1979
to Tensile test on plastic pipes
Tensile tests
on single filaments, filament strands, and uni- and multi-directional laminates, as well as notch tensile tests and tensile tests on bolted laminates.
to Tensile tests
Wet Tensile Test
ISO 3781, TAPPI T 456
Strength in wet state
to Wet Tensile Test
Tensile test paper (dry)
DIN EN ISO 1924-2, TAPPI T 494
Determination of the tear strength and tear length
to Tensile test paper (dry)
Wet tensile test on tissue
ISO 12625-5
Wet tensile strength of tissue products
to Wet tensile test on tissue
Dry tensile test on tissue
ISO 12625-4
Determination of the tear strength and tear length
to Dry tensile test on tissue
r-value metals
ISO 10113
to r-value metals
n-value metals
ISO 10275
to n-value metals

Testing Machines for Tensile Tests

Other Tests

Fatigue test
Definition and description:
to Fatigue test
Hardness Testing to Hardness Testing
Impact test to Impact test
Drop weight test to Drop weight test
Biaxial test to Biaxial test
Test methods for sheet metal forming to Test methods for sheet metal forming
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