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Tensile Test

The tensile test is a test method within mechanical materials testing, for determination of material characteristics. Depending on the material, the test is used as the standard method in accordance with the respective standard for determination of yield strength, tensile strength, strain at break and other material properties.

In the tensile test a material specimen is strained until it breaks. The applied strain rate must be low, so that the result is not distorted. During the tensile test the force and extension of the specimen are measured.

Next to hardness measurement, tensile tests are one of the most frequently performed tests in mechanical materials testing. They are used to characterize the strength and deformation behavior under tensile load.

Tensile Test – Purpose and Meaning

Tensile tests are performed

  • On machined thin specimens for determination of the material behavior under uniaxial tensile load uniformly distributed over the cross section
  • On notched specimens for the simulation of multi-axial stress states—notch tensile test
  • On products such as wires, yarns, films, ropes, shaped elements, components and component assemblies—which from here on out will be referred to as cycle.

During a tensile test the material behavior is examined

  • Under continually increasing (smooth) load – classic quasi-static tensile test
  • Under constant static load – creep tensile test
  • Under alternating load for determination of the cyclic stress­strain curve –LCF (Low Cycle Fatigue)
  • At room temperature (10 to 35 °C)
  • At elevated temperatures (to far over 1000 °C)
  • At low temperatures (down to -269 °C)
  • At very low test speeds – creep tests, or also
  • At elevated test speeds – high-speed tensile tests

The characteristic values determined with the tensile test are

  • The foundation for the calculation and dimensioning of statically loaded components and structures
  • Needed for the characterization of the processing behavior of the materials
  • Used during quality control for the determination of production uniformity
  • Used during material selection for comparison between materials and material conditions

Differentiation of Tensile Test According to Temporal Progression of the Load

In general a distinction is made between tensile tests with static, quasi-static, cyclic and impact loading.

Normally, a load is considered to be static when the material is subjected to an inactive constant load. In a classic tensile test the load is steadily increasing and applied smoothly (quasi-static). The upper limit for quasi-static test methods lies at a deformation speed of approximately 10-1s-1, therefore the maximum increase (e.g. of the strain) cannot be more than 0.1 % per second.

Differentiation of Tensile Test According to Material to be Tested

The tensile test is a standard-based method for materials testing, which depending on material / industry puts different requirements on the performance. 

Our industry experts know these requirements and are happy to help with the configuration of the testing systems for your individual testing needs.

In the following list you will find examples of various descriptions of tensile tests in a wide range of industries

Tensile test on metals – ISO 6892-1

Description of the tensile test on metals to ISO 6892-1 at ambient temperature.
to Tensile test on metals – ISO 6892-1

Tensile test at elevated temperature, ISO 6892-2

The DIN EN ISO 6892-2:2018 standard describes tensile testing on metallic materials at elevated temperature.
to Tensile test at elevated temperature, ISO 6892-2

Tensile test to ISO 527

ISO 527-1, ISO 527-2
The tensile test on plastics to ISO 527-1 and ISO 527-2 yields essential mechanical properties, including tensile stress, strain, tensile modulus, yield point, point of break and Poisson’s ratio.
to Tensile test to ISO 527

Tensile properties

ISO 527-3, ASTM D882, ASTM D5323
Standard-compliant determination of tensile properties on films and sheets to ISO 527-3.
to Tensile properties

Tensile properties/tear strength

ISO 1798 and ISO 8067
Tests on soft foam to ISO 1798 and ISO 8067 and factory regulations
to Tensile properties/tear strength

Tensile properties

ISO 6259
Specimens taken from the pipe wall through mechanical processing are used for tensile tests.
to Tensile properties

Tensile tests

on single filaments, filament strands, and uni- and multi-directional laminates, as well as notch tensile tests and tensile tests on bolted laminates.
to Tensile tests

Wet Tensile Test

ISO 3781, TAPPI T 456
Strength of the paper (or tissue) in a wet state to ISO 3781, TAPPI T 456
to Wet Tensile Test

Dry Tensile Test

to DIN EN ISO 1924-2 or TAPPI T 494 - determining tear strength and tear length
to Dry Tensile Test

Wet Tensile Test

ISO 12625-5
The strength of the tissue (or paper) in a wet state to DIN EN ISO 12625-5
to Wet Tensile Test

Dry Tensile Test

ISO 12625-4
Dry tensile test to DIN EN ISO 12625-4 for determination of the tear strength and tear length
to Dry Tensile Test

Determination of r-values to ISO 10113 and ASTM E517

The r-value according to ISO 10113 is one of the typical characteristic values in the tensile test for characterising metal materials and describes the ratio of the true plastic strain in width and the true plastic strain in thickness.
to Determination of r-values to ISO 10113 and ASTM E517

n-value calculation to ISO 10275

The n-value can be calculated from the raw data (force and extension) of the tensile test (e.g to EN 10002-1, ISO 6892, ASTM E8) with direct strain measurement and determines the hardening exponent in the process.
to n-value calculation to ISO 10275

Testing Machines for Tensile Tests

Other Tests

Fatigue test

In the fatigue test, material fatigue is evoked through a cyclic load with corresponding test frequency.
to Fatigue test

Hardness Testing

In hardness testing, is the resistance of a body to the indentation by another (harder) body is measured.
to Hardness Testing

Impact test

Impact tests are short-term tests, which provide information on the failure behavior of materials or components.
to Impact test

Drop weight test

The drop weight test is a mechanical test, in which a defined weight falls onto a specimen from a specified height.
to Drop weight test

Biaxial test

In the biaxial test—in contrast to the uniaxial tensile test—a specimen is loaded via two load axes.
to Biaxial test

Test methods for sheet metal forming

Test methods for sheet metal forming provide characteristic values for metalworking and metal processing and include tests such as cupping tests, earing tests and hole expansion tests.
to Test methods for sheet metal forming