Non-destructive and destructive materials testing examines the mechanical loading of a material up to break or up to a specific deformation. The tests can take place under different environmental conditions.
Through material characteristic values materials testing delivers a clear definition of the material properties, which in turn allows for the comparison between different materials.
Materials testing is not only performed at research institutes, it also helps companies obtain valuable knowledge for the development of new products, and the improvement of existing products.
There are a variety of test methods that can be applied in materials testing:
- In (quasi-) static testing or static materials testing loading on the specimen is slow and constant. In static materials testing the strength and deformation behavior of specimens and components, predominantly subjected to tension, compression, and flexure, as well as shearing or torsion, is determined. Static materials testing, relative to dynamic materials testing is performed with lower test speeds.
- For dynamic testing the specimen is subjected to an impact load or the load periodically influences the specimen over a longer period of time. Dynamic materials testing refers to the (destructive) test on materials or components, which is performed with quick movement (dynamic). Examples include pendulum impact testers, drop weight testers, high-speed tests (puncture or high-speed tensile tests).
- Cyclic materials testing/fatigue testing: in cyclic materials testing, loading on the specimen takes place in continuously recurring load cycles. Depending on the machine, these load cycles can be in the form of tensile/compression, pulsating or alternating load in sinusoidal shape, triangle shape, etc.
In destructive materials testing, specimens are extracted from a material and tested for mechanical or chemical loads. The specimen is destroyed or altered (on the surface). After the test, the tested component, or material specimen can no longer be used.
Destructive materials testing particularly plays an important part in the automotive industry and aerospace engineering, since here material fatigue presents a very high risk factor. However, materials and components testing has also become indispensable in medical engineering.
In most test methods the specimen is destroyed:
In non-destructive materials testing the quality of a specimen is tested, without damaging it. In this way it can be ensured that the material quality is high enough for further processing and that it can reliably stand up to loads for the long-term.
Non-destructive test methods include:
Materials testing includes a variety of test methods with which the behavior and material characteristics of standard specimen materials or finished parts and components (components testing) under mechanical, thermal or chemical loads are determined. The test method requirements vary among different industries.
Our machines are used in research and development and quality assurance in more than 20 industries. Our experts have a detailed understanding of the individual requirements of the different industries and meet your specific testing needs with state-of-the-art solutions.
The ZwickRoell Group is a global leading supplier of static materials testing machines specifically designed for tensile, compression, flexure, shear, and torsion tests.
Our static materials testing machines are suitable for testing applications in all areas, whether in quality control or research projects, delivering outstanding performance in challenging materials and component testing situations.