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Material properties of plastics

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Testing of Material Properties of a Product

  • During the manufacture of a finished product or a semi-finished product, the processed polymer is subject to a variety of mechanical, thermal, and chemical loadings and normally forms orientations for the polymer chains and fillers. Therefore, the mechanical properties of a polymer differ at various points of the component.
  • To compare material properties of an end product produced by injection molding, extruding, or compression molding, a sampling plan for the specimen is defined. This sampling plan is based on the forming process of the end product and defines the number, form, size, and direction of sampling of the specimen.
  • After appropriate conditioning, the specimens taken are tested to the test standards also used in molding materials or to specific information found in the product specification.
  • Regular specimen sampling from ongoing production ensures that specific material properties remain constant in one product within predefined tolerances and over longer production periods.
  • ZwickRoell offers reliable universal testing machines and extensometers for tensile, flexure, and compression tests, as well as pendulum impact testers, hardness testers, extrusion plastometers, and HDT/Vicat testing instruments as manual or completely automated systems. Thus, the statistical scatter of your results is significantly reduced.

Quasi-static tests

Tensile Test

ISO 527-1, ISO 527-2, ASTM D638
Tensile test on plastic molding compounds: ISO 527-1/-2 and ASTM D638: Tensile stress, strain, tensile modulus, yield point, point of break, Poisson's ratio Find out everything regarding the purpose of the test and the required product portfolio.
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Tensile properties ASTM D638

The tensile test on plastics to ASTM D638 yields essential mechanical properties, including tensile stress, strain, tensile modulus, yield point, point of break and Poisson’s ratio.In this process, essential mechanical properties of a molding material or a specimen taken from a defined area on a component are determined.
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3-Point Flexure Tests

ISO 178
The 3-point flexure tests described in ISO 178 and ASTM D790, demonstrate classic characterization methods for rigid and semi-rigid plastics. Typical test results include the flexural modulus, stress at 3.5% elongation, stresses and elongations at the yield point and at specimen break.
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3-point flexure test ASTM D790

The ASTM D790 standard describes 3-point flexure tests on rigid and semi-rigid plastics as well as fiber composites with long-fiber reinforcements.
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Tests at increased and high strain rates

Charpy impact and notched impact strength ISO 179-1 & ISO 179-2

The standards ISO 179-1 (non-instrumented impact strength test) and ISO 179-2 (instrumented impact strength test) describe the impact test to Charpy for determination of the impact and notched impact strength of plastics.
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Izod notched impact strength ASTM D256

Within the scope of ASTM, the notched impact strength of plastics is normally measured using the Izod test to ASTM D256.The flexural impact stress is applied to a notched specimen that is gripped on one side.The result is presented as the thickness-related energy absorption of the specimen.
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Izod impact and notched impact strength ISO 180

The ISO 180 standard describes the Izod impact test on plastics for determination of the impact and notched impact strength.
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Tensile impact tests to ISO 8256, ASTM D1822

Tensile impact tests on plastics provide a material property based on the impact energy, which is determined under tensile loading on standardized specimens at high strain rates.When using the same pairings of pendulum and yoke sizes, the result is a good level of reproducibility of the test results.
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Tensile tests at high strain rates

The measurement of stress-strain curves under high strain rates provides data for crash simulations, for example in vehicle construction.
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Puncture tests on test plates

In a puncture test, the impact strength of a polymer is determined under increased strain rates and a multiaxial stress state.
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Dynstat flexure and impact bending test

DIN 53435
The Dynstat flexure test, the Dynstat impact bending test, and the notched impact bending test to DIN 53435 are used in the characterization of material properties for components made of plastics.
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Creep tests

Creep tests

ISO 899-1, ISO 899-2, ASTM D2990, ISO 16770
Creep tests: Often run over a period of 1,000 hours; records the strain of the specimen to demonstrate the long-term behavior
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Rheological and thermal properties, hardness

Melt flow index test

ISO 1133
Determination of the melt mass flow rate (MFR) and melt volume flow rate (MVR) of filled and unfilled thermoplastics to ISO 1133-1 and -2, ASTM D1238. and other similar standards.
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Determination of HDT VST

Among others, ISO 306, ASTM D1525, ISO 75, ASTM D648
Determination of heat deflection temperature (HDT) and Vicat softening temperature (VST) to ISO 306, ASTM D1525, ISO 75, ASTM D648
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Hardness Testing

ISO 7619-1, ISO 868, ASTM D2240, ISO 2039-1/-2, ASTM D785, ISO 19278
There are a variety of methods used to test hardness in the plastics industry. The following are described here: Ball indentation hardness: ISO 2039-1, Rockwell hardness: ISO 2039-2, ASTM D785, instrumented hardness testing: ISO 14577-1, Shore hardness: ISO 868, ASTM D2240, ISO 7619
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