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Material properties of plastics

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Testing of Material Properties of a Product

  • During the manufacture of a finished product or a semi-finished product, the processed polymer is subject to a variety of mechanical, thermal, and chemical loadings and normally forms orientations for the polymer chains and fillers. Therefore, the mechanical properties of a polymer differ at various points of the component.
  • To compare material properties of an end product produced by injection molding, extruding, or compression molding, a sampling plan for the specimen is defined. This sampling plan is based on the forming process of the end product and defines the number, form, size, and direction of sampling of the specimen.
  • After appropriate conditioning, the specimens taken are tested to the test standards also used in molding materials or to specific information found in the product specification.
  • Regular specimen sampling from ongoing production ensures that specific material properties remain constant in one product within predefined tolerances and over longer production periods.
  • ZwickRoell offers reliable universal testing machines and extensometers for tensile, flexure, and compression tests, as well as pendulum impact testers, hardness testers, extrusion plastometers, and HDT/Vicat testing instruments as manual or completely automated systems. Thus, the statistical scatter of your results is significantly reduced.

3-Point Flexure Tests

ISO 178
The 3-point flexure tests described in ISO 178 and ASTM D790, demonstrate classic characterization methods for rigid and semi-rigid plastics. Typical test results include the flexural modulus, stress at 3.5% elongation, stresses and elongations at the yield point and at specimen break.
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Melt flow index test

ISO 1133
Determination of the melt mass flow rate (MFR) and melt volume flow rate (MVR) of filled and unfilled thermoplastics to ISO 1133-1 and -2, ASTM D1238. and other similar standards.
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Determination of HDT VST

Among others, ISO 306, ASTM D1525, ISO 75, ASTM D648
Determination of heat deflection temperature (HDT) and Vicat softening temperature (VST) to ISO 306, ASTM D1525, ISO 75, ASTM D648
to Determination of HDT VST

Hardness Testing

ISO 7619-1, ISO 868, ASTM D2240, ISO 2039-1/-2, ASTM D785, ISO 19278
There are a variety of methods used to test hardness in the plastics industry. The following are described here: Ball indentation hardness: ISO 2039-1, Rockwell hardness: ISO 2039-2, ASTM D785, instrumented hardness testing: ISO 14577-1, Shore hardness: ISO 868, ASTM D2240, ISO 7619
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Creep tests

ISO 899-1, ISO 899-2, ASTM D2990, ISO 16770
Creep tests: Often run over a period of 1,000 hours; records the strain of the specimen to demonstrate the long-term behavior
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Automation of plastic molding materials testing reduces the statistical scatter of test results. ZwickRoell offers the right automated testing systems for this application.
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