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Testing of Sheet Metal and Strips

Strip refers to steel and non-ferrous products that are rolled into coils, for example, hot-rolled strip, which is used as primary material for cold-rolled sheets.

Hot-rolled strip is produced in thicknesses up to approximately 15 mm and in widths up to approximately 2,200 mm. Hot-rolled plate is sheet cut out of hot-rolled strip and is up to approximately 15 mm thick and up to approximately 2,000 mm wide.

Tensile tests Hardness tests Flexure tests Impact tests Fatigue and fracture mechanics tests Deformation tests Automation Metals brochure

Tensile tests on sheet metal and strips

Tensile tests on sheet metal and strips are predominantly performed to the international standard ISO 6892-1 and the American standard ASTM E8. In addition, there are many national standards that have aligned more and more with the international standard ISO 6892-1 over the last few years. EN ISO 6892-1 applies to Europe and is identical in wording. All EU member states must adopt it as their national standard (for example, as DIN EN ISO 6892-1). The characteristic values defined in these standards and described in their determination methods are comparable in their end results. Important values for the characterization of materials are the yield point, the offset yield, die maximum strength as well as strain at maximum force, strain at maximum stress and strain at break. These characteristic values are used by engineers as the basis of their work and are important criteria for product acceptance in the customer-supplier relationship.

Tensile tests on sheet metal and strips under increased temperature

In applications such as engine design, power plant design, powertrains, and chemical plants, the material behavior under increased temperatures up to approx. 1,200 °C are of vital importance. Tensile tests are primarily performed for these applications under increased temperature, although flexure tests are as well.

Tensile test on metals
ISO 6892-1
to Tensile test on metals
Tensile test on metals
ASTM E8
to Tensile test on metals
Tensile test on metals at elevated temperature
ISO 6892-2
to Tensile test on metals at elevated temperature
n-value metals
ISO 10275
to n-value metals
r-value metals
ISO 10113
to r-value metals

Testing solutions for tensile tests on sheet metal and strips

ZwickRoell supplies a wide range of static materials testing machines for determining material properties through tensile tests; these systems provide high-precision testing under high loads. ZwickRoell has a comprehensive range of axial and transverse strain extensometers, which allow you to select the optimum combination in line with your requirements and testing conditions, for example, a makroXtens digital extensometer combined with an optical transverse strain extensometer. This combination offers robustness and a high level of automation, as well as easy specimen handling. The makroXtens measures extension up to the point of break. The mechanical version of the knife edge holders prevents the measuring system from being negatively influenced by a sudden tension release of the specimen at break. With the optional break location identification feature, the optical transverse strain extensometer measures the transverse strain up to break along the specimen, thus making classification of the break location as accurate as possible.

R- and n-values are often also determined in tensile tests in order to characterize forming properties; the n-value describes the work hardening—increase in stress—during plastic deformation up to uniform elongation, while the r-value describes the vertical anisotropy. The n-value is determined from the tensile stress data and strain values; for the r-value, the transverse strain on the tensile specimen is additionally measured. Tensile specimens are taken from the strip or sheet at set angles to the rolling direction. One factor affecting the r-value is the rolling direction. This can be particularly important when using the sheet to manufacture components through bulk metal forming. The sheet thickness is retained as specimen thickness in a tensile test so that the material does not undergo any changes during surface processing. The parallel length is produced by milling or punching together with finishing so that the material does not undergo any changes during this machining process.

A distinctive feature is the ability to perform a two-axis tensile test, or cruciform biaxial tensile test, which is used to determine additional deformation properties of the material. It is primarily employed in research and development, as it allows defined stress values to be set and investigated at the intersection point of the specimen. ZwickRoell offers three different models of cruciform testing machines. In most cases, strain is measured optically and without contact. For this, ZwickRoell offers various optical/non-contact extensometers.

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Our robotic testing systems assume fully automated performance of tensile, flexure or impact tests for specimens with test forces up to 2,500 kN.

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Products for tensile tests on sheet metal and strips

Hardness tests on metal sheets and strips

Hardness testing on sheet metal and strips is mainly performed to characterize the overall surface hardness of a specimen and for metallographic investigations. Depending on the application, hardness tests are performed to ISO 6506-1 (Brinell), ISO 6507-1 (Vickers), ISO 6508-1 (Rockwell) as well as ASTM E10 (Brinell), ASTM E384 (Vickers and Knoop) and ASTM E18 (Rockwell). In addition, other methods or specifications are used for certain application areas (for example, the European standard EN 2002-7 is used in the aerospace industry).

Hardness testing is also used for weld seam tests on sheet metal and strips if larger constructions are welded together from these. Striking examples of this is ship construction, offshore facilities, and pipeline construction for oil and gas transport.

The DIN EN ISO 9015 series of standards defines the test types. Typically, hardness tests are performed according to Vickers HV5 or HV10 (with test loads of 49 N or 98 N). Since during weld seam testing, hardness must be tested and monitored in the base material, in the heat-affected zone and in the weld metal itself, a large number of indentations must be made on the cross-sections and transverse sections of a weld seam. Automatic hardness testers are often used for this type of test, which use programmable sequences to automatically place indentations at predetermined positions and then also measure them automatically.

Brinell test metals
ISO 6506, ASTM E10
to Brinell test metals
Vickers test metals
ISO 6507, ASTM E92, ASTM E384
to Vickers test metals
Rockwell test metals
ISO 6508
to Rockwell test metals

Hardness tester for tests on sheet metal and strips

The ZwickRoell product portfolio offers hardness testers and instruments for every test method. Fully automated systems are specifically used for weld seam testing. These can perform hundreds of hardness tests without manual intervention by the operator, autonomously and efficiently. ZwickRoell hardness testers and instruments meet the requirements of all common international standards and can also be calibrated to international standards. As a calibration lab, ZwickRoell is accredited for the calibration of hardness testers by the German national accreditation body DAkkS.

Flexure tests on sheet metal and strips

The 3-point flexure test serves to not only determine the characteristics of the flexural properties but also visually evaluates the flexural edge. In particular, the behavior of the weld seams are visually examined during the flexure test. ZwickRoell’s range of flexure test kit options combined with adaptations to existing specimen holders provide an ideal solution.

Products for flexure tests

Impact test on sheet metal and strips

Notched Charpy impact test metals
ISO 148-1
to Notched Charpy impact test metals
Charpy and Izod notched impact test metals
ASTM E23
to Charpy and Izod notched impact test metals
High-Speed Tensile Test to High-Speed Tensile Test
Drop weight test on metals
DIN EN 10274, API 5L
to Drop weight test on metals

Products for impact tests on sheet metal and strips

Fatigue/fracture mechanics tests on sheet metal and strips

Fracture mechanics: critical stress intensity factor K1C
ASTM E399
to Fracture mechanics: critical stress intensity factor K1C
Fracture mechanics: crack growth da/dN and threshold value
ASTM E647
to Fracture mechanics: crack growth da/dN and threshold value
High Cycle Fatigue Test / S-N Test
DIN 50100
to High Cycle Fatigue Test / S-N Test

Related products

Deformation tests on sheet metal and strips

Cupping test on metals to Erichsen/Olsen
ISO 20482, ASTM E643-84
Stretching capacity of a sheet metal
to Cupping test on metals to Erichsen/Olsen
Forming limit curve (FLC) of metals
ISO 12004
Determination of the failure limit of a sheet metal
to Forming limit curve (FLC) of metals
Hydraulic bulge test on metals
ISO 16808
Hydraulic cupping test
to Hydraulic bulge test on metals
VW test on metals
PV 1054
Testing the waviness of a sheet metal
to VW test on metals
Earing test on metals/aluminum
ISO 11531, DIN EN 1669
Determination of the ear formation
to Earing test on metals/aluminum
Earing test on metal to Fukui
JIS Z 2249
to Earing test on metal to Fukui
Square cup test on metals to Square cup test on metals
Limiting drawing ratio test (LDR) on metals
Earing test
Swift deep drawing cup test
to Limiting drawing ratio test (LDR) on metals
Limiting dome height (LDH) test on metals
Earing test
to Limiting dome height (LDH) test on metals
Deep drawing and tear-off test on metals
to Engelhardt
to Deep drawing and tear-off test on metals
Determination of the edge crack sensitivity on metals
ISO 16630
Hole expansion test with conical punch
to Determination of the edge crack sensitivity on metals
KWI test on metals
Hole expansion test with flat drawing die
to KWI test on metals

Products for deformation tests on sheet metal and strips

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